Presentation on theme: "Unit One: Critical and Creative Thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit One: Critical and Creative Thinking
Interdisciplinary Studies for Autonomous StudentsIDC4UCompiled by Mrs. D. Wittmann
2 Critical Thinking (IQ)
“Me Critical” = Analyzes facts. Makes comparisons.Evaluates arguments. Draws conclusions.Advanced vocabularyGood memoryLearns quickly and easilyLarge fund of informationGeneralizes skillfullyComprehends new ideas readilyReceives similarities, differences, relationshipsMakes judgments and decisions
3 Creative Thinking (CQ)
“Me Creative” = generative thinkingQuestions: Curious about many topicsHas many ideasOffers unique and unusual ideasAdds details; elaboratesTransforms or combines ideasSees implications or consequences easilyRisk-taker; speculatesFeels free to disagreeFinds subtle humour, paradox, or discrepancies“possibilities and alternatives thinking”
4 Autonomous (Task Commitment)
Sets own goals, standardsIntense in involvement in preferred problems and tasksEnthusiastic about interests and activitiesNeeds little external motivationRefers to concentrate on own interests/projectsHigh level of energyPerseveresCompletes, shares productsEager for new projects/challengesAssumes responsibility
5 What Is Thinking? Mental activity that helps to formulate or
solve a problem, to make a decision or toseek understanding.Involves critical and creative aspects of themind, both the use of reason and thegeneration of ideas.
6 Higher Level Thinking: Bloom’s Taxonomy
To Increase ThinkingKnowledge - refers to the memory of facts and informationList, match, write, tell, recite, memorize, find, identify, label, choose, pickComprehension - is the ability to explain, interpret, andextrapolate ideas, concepts and informationExplain, summarize, interpret, estimate, paraphrase, conclude,prepare, demonstrateApplication - is the ability to apply understanding to newsituations and solve problemsApply, experiment, organize, construct, solve, put together,model, select, put to use interview
7 Analysis – is the ability to break down facts, ideas, and
concepts into parts, to examine relationships among parts,to compare and contrast, and to create categoriesOutline, compare and contrast, divide, classify, categorize,analyze, inspect, simplify, surveySynthesis – is to create a new whole, see a new pattern ofrelationships, develop a new and unusual approachCreate, form, compose, produce, rearrange, predict,hypothesize, imagine, invent, developEvaluation – is to establish criteria and make judgmentsand decisionsRank, judge, evaluate, decide, critique, assess, grade,recommend, defend, conclude, determine
9 Six Thinking HatsSix Thinking Hats® is a simple, effective parallel thinking process that helps people be more productive, focused, and mindfully involved. Once learned, the tools can be applied immediately. You and your team members can learn how to separate thinking into six clear functions and roles. Each thinking role is identified with a colored symbolic "thinking hat." By mentally wearing and switching "hats," you can easily focus or redirect thoughts, the conversation, or the meeting.
10 Parallel Thinking (originated by Edward DeBono)
11 Used to simplify thinking by allowing a
thinker to deal with one thing at a time – toallow a switch of thinking – put on your“thinking cap”Single Use: the hats are used as symbolsto request a particular type of thinking
12 Sequence Use: the hats can be used in a certain sequence
Any hat can be used as often as you likeThere is no need to use every hatThe sequence can be made up of two, three, four, or more hatsTypically – begin and end with the BLUE hat
13 Making ConnectionsCan you make connections between the six hats and Bloom’s taxonomy? i.e. White hat and Bloom’s Knowledge
14 Part One:Critical Thinking
15 Critical Thinking Critical thinking is the process of evaluating
propositions or hypotheses and makingjudgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence.
16 Three Elements to Developing Critical Thinking Skills
1. A Curious and Open Mind“Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why.”Bernard BaruchFor every challenge undertaken, whether a win or a loss, asuccess or a failure; invaluable experience is gained.“Life was meant to be lived. Curiosity must be kept alive.One must never, for whatever reason turn his back on life.”Eleanor Roosevelt
17 2. Thinking through Issues
First, facts and data are gathered. Then,assumptions and risks are considered. Finally,an informed decision is made and appropriateaction is taken to achieve a goal. Thissystematically process is known as a stream oflogic. The more critical the challenge, the morethinking is required."It is not the mountain we conquer but ourselves."Sir Edmund Hillary
18 3. Analyze Issues from Multiple View Points
Almost all issues can be looked at several ways.Different perspectives (also known as view points)help provide better solutions to issues. Commonquestions to ask yourself:• Are there other perspectives that I can view this from?• What are these other view points?• How can I use these perspectives to resolve this challenge?• Do I understand the cause and effect of decisions made, or actions taken?
19 The Seven Decision Making Steps
Step 1: Gather the Facts and DataStep 2: Make your assumptionsStep 3: Identify your OptionsStep 4: Use logic and common senseStep 5: Incorporate your feelingsStep 6: Make your decisionStep 7: Modify or change your decision if needed
20 The Eight Problem Solving Steps
These 8 Problem Solving Steps are fordoing projects and achieving objectives:Part I: Define your project or objectivePart II: Structure your problem solvingsteps, then do it
21 Step 1: Use your past knowledge
Step 2: Visualize your desired resultsStep 3: Frame your project or objectiveStep 4: Collect the facts and dataStep 5: Determine your available optionsStep 6: Pick a solution and implementStep 7: Modify or change if requiredStep 8: Review your lessons learned
22 Einstein is quoted as having said that if he had one hour to
save the world he would spend fifty-five minutes definingthe problem and only five minutes finding the solution.This quote does illustrate an important point: beforejumping right into solving a problem, we should step backand invest time and effort to improve our understanding ofit.What is the most important step in problem solving? Clearlydefining the problem in the first place!
23 Part Two:Creative Thinking
24 Creative ThinkingCreative thinking is the process which we use when we come up with a new ideaCreative process can be accidental or deliberateWithout using special techniques creative thinking still does occurUsing special techniques deliberate creative thinking can be used to develop new ideasWallace Stevens wrote a poem called “Thirteen ways of looking at a blackbird” in which he wrote thirteen verses, all describing a blackbird from different angles.
25 Thinking ToolsCreative thinking tools can help to 'release' latent creativity we all have
26 Enhancing Critical and Creative Thought: CoRT
CoRT stands for Cognitive Research Trust which was established in 1970 in Cambridge, UK. by Edward de BonoCoRT can also be regarded as being short for cortex where all thinking takes place in the brain.
27 The CoRT programme is divided into six parts of ten lessons each
CoRT 1 - BreadthCoRT 2 - OrganisationCoRT 3 - InteractionCoRT 4 - CreativityCoRT 5 - Information & FeelingCoRT 6 - Action
28 William’s Taxonomy To Develop Creative and Divergent Thinking
Williams’ Taxonomy has eight levels, alsoarranged in a hierarchy, with certain typesof student behavior associated with eachlevel:
29 Fluency: generating a great many ideas, related answers or choices.
Flexibility: changing everyday objects to generate a variety of categories, by taking detours and varying sizes, shapes, quantities, time limits, requirements, objectives or dimensions.Originality: seeking new ideas by suggesting unusual twists to change content or coming up with clever responses.Elaboration: expanding, enlarging, enriching or embellishing possibilities that build on previous thoughts or ideas.
30 Risk Taking: dealing with the unknown by taking chances, experimenting with new ideas or trying new challenges.Complexity: creating structure in an unstructured setting or building a logical order in a given situation.Curiosity: following a hunch, questioning alternatives, pondering outcomes and wondering about options.Imagination: visualizing possibilities, building images in the mind, picturing new objects, reaching beyond the limits of the practical
31 Techniques to Enhance Creativity
SCAMPER (defined by Robert Eberle)SCAMPER is an acronym for useful list ofwords that can be applied as stimuli to makeyou think differently about the problem area
32 Substitute – person? place? thing?
Combine – what? combine purposes? ideas?Adapt – reshape? tune-up? tone down?Modify – magnify? minimize?Put to other uses – new use?Eliminate – remove? omit? simplify?Rearrange – change order? reverse? plan? scheme?
33 Example: I want to invent a new type of pen
Substitute - ink with iron, nib with knifeCombine - writing with cutting, holding with openingAdapt - pen top as containerModify - body to be flexiblePut to other uses - use to write on woodEliminate - clip by using velcroRearrange - nib to fold outwards
34 Ideabox Leonardo DaVinci’s grotesque heads and
famous caricatures are an example of the randomvariations of the human face made up of differentcombinations of a set number of features. Hewould first list facial characteristics (heads, eyes,nose, etc.) and then beneath each listvariations. Next he would mix and match thedifferent variations to create original and grotesquecaricatures.
37 Brainstorming (originated by Alex Osborn)
Suggest that the creative process involves twosteps:1. Idea generation2. Idea evaluationFour basic principles of brainstorming:1. Criticism is ruled out2. Free-wheeling is welcome3. Quantity is wanted4. Combination and improvement are sought
38 Brainstorming works best when everyone comes together to share ideas AFTER they have had time to work independently.Each member then brings their ideas to the group to shape and build upon ideas.
39 Divergent Thinking Many possibilities developing from one starting
point (curiosity, inventiveness, activity)Defer JudgmentLook for lots of ideasAccept all ideasMake yourself stretch for ideasTake time to let ideas simmerSeek combinations – be a hitchhiker
40 Convergent Thinking Many thoughts or varieties converging on a
single answer (knowledge, decision, evaluation)Be deliberateBe explicitAvoid premature closureLook for sneaky spotsDevelop affirmative judgmentDo not lose sight of your goals
41 Synectics (developed by William Gordon)
SYN – bring togetherECTICS – diverse elementsPrinciple that by connecting seemingly irrelevant elementsof thought, synectics can spark new ideas that may dedeveloped into feasible solutions to problems.“Making the familiar strange and making thestrange familiar”
42 Socratic Method Pose debatable, open-ended, provocative questions
Socratic questioning seeks to get the other person to answer their own questions by making them think and drawing out the answer from them.
43 Creative Think (created by Roger von Oech)
The Explorer is your role for discovering the resources you will use to create new ideasThe Artist is your role for transforming your resources into new ideasThe Judge is your role for evaluating an idea and deciding what to do with itThe Warrior is your role for implementing your idea
44 Looking back at the beginnings of the creative thought process
HistoryLooking back at the beginnings of the creative thought process
45 The Creative Process: Stages of Creative Thought
Graham Wallas, in his work Art of Thought,published in 1926, presented one of the firstmodels of the creative process. In theWallas stage model, creative insights andilluminations may be explained by a processconsisting of 5 stages:
46 (i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem
that focuses the individual's mind on the problemand explores the problem's dimensions),(ii) incubation (where the problem is internalizedinto the unconscious mind and nothing appearsexternally to be happening),(iii) intimation (the creative person gets a 'feeling‘that a solution is on its way),(iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea burstsforth from its preconscious processing into consciousawareness); and(v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified,elaborated, and then applied).
47 Joseph Rossman and the seven-step model (1931)
1. Observation of a need or difficulty 2. Analysis of the need 3. A survey of all available information 4. A formulation of all objective solutions 5. A critical analysis of these solutions for their advantages and disadvantages 6. The birth of the new idea - the invention 7. Experimentation to test out the most promising solution, and the selection and perfection of the final embodiment by some or all of the previous steps.
48 Osborn's Seven-Step Model for Creative Thinking (1953)
“The most direct way to develop creativity is by practicing creativity…by actually thinking up solutions to specific problems.” –Alex F. OsbornOrientation: pointing up the problemPreparation: gathering pertinent dataAnalysis: breaking down the relevant materialIdeation: piling up alternatives by way of ideasIncubation: letting up, to invite illuminationSynthesis: putting the pieces togetherEvaluation: judging the resulting ideas
49 Creative Problem Solving: CPS (developed by Osborn-Parnes 1953/1979 and later refined by colleagues)
Six Stages of problem-solving:1. Objective Finding (Mess-finding): What is the goal, wish, or challenge upon which you want to work?2. Fact Finding: What is the situation or background? What are all the facts, questions, data, and feelings that are involved?3. Problem Finding: What is the problem that really needs to be focused on? What is the concern that really needs to be addressed?4. Idea Finding: What are the possible solutions for how to solve the problem?5. Solution Finding: How can you strengthen the solution? How can you select the solutions to know which one will work the best?6. Acceptance Finding: What are all the action steps that need to take place in order to implement your solution?
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