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Anatomy And Physiology Exam Essay Questions

Package Title: Testbank Course Title: PAP 13 Chapter Number: 03 Question type: Multiple Choice 1) What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell? a) plasma membrane, organelles, cytoplasm b) plasma membrane, organelles, nucleus c) plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles d) plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus e) plasma membrane, cytosol, organelles Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.1 Name and describe the three main parts of a cell. Section Reference 1: 3.1 Parts of a Cell Question type: Essay 2) Briefly describe the fluid mosaic model. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane Solution: The fluid mosaic model states that the molecular arrangement of the plasma membrane resembles an ever-moving sea of fluid lipids containing a mosaic of many different proteins. Question type: Multiple Choice 3) The three main components of the lipid bilayer portion of a plasma membrane are a) phospholipids, glycoproteins, and water. b) proteins, cholesterol, and fatty acids. c) cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycolipids. d) phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids. e) phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 4) What are the nonpolar parts of phospholipids? a) phosphate-containing head groups b) fatty acid tail groups c) Both the head and tail groups are nonpolar. d) Neither the head nor tail groups are nonpolar. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 5) The polar portion of a cholesterol molecule, which forms hydrogen bonds with the polar heads of neighboring phospholipids and glycolipids, consists of a a) –OH group. b) –CH3 group. c) –CH4 group d) –COOH group e) None of these choices is correct. Answer: a Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 6) This type of membrane protein extends across the entire lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane touching both intracellular fluid and the extracellular fluid. a) complement protein b) transmembrane protein c) peripheral protein d) lipoprotein e) All of these choices are correct. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane Question type: Essay 7) Describe five different functions of integral membrane proteins. Answer: Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane Solution: Some membrane proteins act as ion channels or carriers that transport substances across the membrane. Other membrane proteins act as receptors that allow the cell to respond to various types of ligands. Other membrane proteins are enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions. Still other membrane proteins act as linker proteins that anchor cells to neighboring structures including other cells. Lastly, some membrane proteins serve as cell identity molecules. Question type: Multiple Choice 8) This type of membrane protein enables cells to catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inner or outer surface of their plasma membrane. a) receptors b) phospholipids c) cholesterol d) enzymes e) ligands Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 9) Which of the following types of membrane proteins function by recognizing and binding to hormones and neurotransmitters? a) transporters b) receptors c) enzymes d) linkers e) cell identification markers Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 10) This type of membrane protein anchors cells to neighboring cells and to protein filaments found outside or inside the cell. a) transporters b) receptors c) ligands d) ion channels e) linkers Answer: e Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 11) Plasma membranes are , which means that some chemicals move easily through plasma membrane while other chemicals do not. a) selectively permeable b) concentration graded c) electrically graded d) selectively soluble e) electrical insulators Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 12) Which of the following does NOT influence the rate of diffusion of a chemical across a plasma membrane? a) concentration gradient of the chemical across the membrane b) mass of the diffusing chemical c) distance that the chemical has to diffuse d) amount of ATP available e) temperature Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane Question type: Essay 13) Briefly describe the driving force for the movement of water across plasma membranes. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane Solution: Water moves across membranes by osmosis, which is driven by solute concentration differences across the membrane. Water moves from the area of low solute concentration to the area of high solute concentrations. Question type: Multiple Choice 14) This is a measure of a solution’s ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content. a) filtration b) normality c) tonicity d) equivalency e) facilitation Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 15) This is the transport process by which gases, like O2 and CO2, move through a membrane. a) osmosis b) active transport c) secondary active transport d) simple diffusion e) endocytosis Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 16) In this type of transport process, a solute (e.g. glucose) binds to a specific carrier protein on one side of the membrane. This binding induces a conformational change in the carrier protein that results in the solute moving down its concentration gradient to the other side of the membrane. a) osmosis b) active transport c) secondary active transport d) facilitated diffusion e) endocytosis Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 17) In this transport process, the energy from hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients. a) primary active transport b) secondary active transport c) facilitated diffusion d) passive diffusion e) osmosis Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 18) If the solute concentration is greater inside of the cell than outside the cell, water will move by osmosis a) into the cell. b) out of the cell. c) into and out of the cell at the same rate resulting in no net water movement. d) All of these answer choices are correct. e) None of these answers are correct. Answer: a Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 19) What transport process uses the energy stored in a Na+ or H+ concentration gradient to drive other substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients? a) primary active transport b) secondary active transport c) facilitated diffusion d) passive diffusion e) osmosis Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 20) Which of the following transport processes uses vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane to secrete materials into the extracellular fluid? a) endocytosis b) exocytosis c) facilitated diffusion d) osmosis e) Both endocytosis and exocytosis. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 21) Which of the following transport process uses vesicles formed at the plasma membrane to take up extracellular substances and import them into the cell? a) endocytosis b) exocytosis c) facilitated diffusion d) osmosis e) Both endocytosis and exocytosis. Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane Question type: Essay 22) List the steps involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane Solution: The steps involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis include 1)ligand binding, 2)vesicle formation, 3)uncoating of the vesicle, 4)fusion of the vesicle with endosome, 5)recycling of receptors to the plasma membrane, and 6)degradation of the ligand in the lysosome. Question type: Multiple Choice 23) During phagocytosis, binding of a particle to a plasma membrane receptor triggers formation of , which are extensions of the plasma membrane of the phagocyte that eventually surround the particle forming a phagosome. a) podocytes b) exterior vesicles c) interior vesicles d) pseudopods e) lysosomes Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 24) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cytosol? a) primarily consists of water b) cation of electron transport chain carrier proteins c) site of many important chemical reactions d) often contains aggregates of triglycerides that form lipid droplets e) contains the enzymes of glycolysis Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 25) Specialized structures within a cell that have a characteristic shape and perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction are called a) organelles. b) cytoskeletons. c) cytoplasm. d) cytosol. e) nuclei. Answer: a Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 26) Microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules are all components of a cell’s a) cytoskeleton. b) nucleus. c) plasma membrane. d) flagella. e) ribosome. Answer: a Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 27) This cellular organelle is comprised of a pair of centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar material. a) cytoskeleton b) cilia c) centrosome d) flagella e) peroxisomes Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 28) Spermatozoa is the only type of human cell that contains a structure that helps propel the sperm towards an oocyte. , which is a whip-like a) cilium b) flagellum c) mitochondria d) centrosome e) microvillus Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 29) Which of the following membrane-enclosed organelles is the site of synthesis of membrane proteins and secretory proteins? a) rough endoplasmic reticulum b) smooth endoplasmic reticulum c) nucleus d) centrosome e) Golgi complex Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 30) Which of the following membrane-enclosed organelles modifies, sorts, and packages proteins destined for other regions of the cell? a) endoplasmic reticulum b) Golgi complex c) peroxisomes d) nucleus e) proteasome Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm Question type: Essay 31) Briefly state the functions of the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Answer: Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm Solution: The rough endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes glycoproteins, phospholipids and digestive enzymes that are transferred to other cellular organelles, inserted into the plasma membrane, secreted during exocytosis or stored in the lysosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, detoxifies harmful substances, removes phosphate groups from glucose-6-phosphate, and stores and releases calcium ions that trigger contractions in muscle fibers. 32) Briefly describe how proteins move through the Golgi complex. Answer: Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm Solution: Proteins are packaged into transport vesicles by the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane. These vesicles enter on the (cis) face of the Golgi complex, and the proteins move through the cisternae, from (cis) face through to exit (trans) face. Proteins will leave from the (trans) face of the Golgi complex in vesicles that will deliver the protein to plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, or to other organelles in the cell. Question type: Multiple Choice 33) Which of the following membrane-enclosed organelles contains several oxidases that are involved in oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids during normal metabolism and in detoxification of chemicals like alcohol in the liver? a) peroxisomes b) mitochondria c) proteasome d) ribosomes e) lysosomes Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 34) Which of the following membrane-enclosed organelles can engulf a worn-out organelle, digest its chemical components, and recycle those digested components? a) peroxisomes b) mitochondria c) proteasome d) ribosomes e) lysosomes Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 35) The major function of proteasomes is to a) perform extracellular digestion of proteins. b) perform autophagy. c) digest dietary proteins for use by other organelles. d) degrade unneeded, damaged or faulty cellular proteins. e) degrade excess ATP. Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 36) The major function of mitochondria is to a) move the cell. b) generate ATP. c) produce proteins. d) oxidize organelles. e) synthesize glycolipids. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 37) Which of the following protects the contents of the nucleus? a) nucleic acids b) nuclear membrane c) centrosome d) cilia e) Golgi complex Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.5 Nucleus 38) What is the major function of histones? a) needed for helix formation of the DNA b) add negative charge to the DNA c) help organize coiling and folding of the DNA d) degrade faulty proteins in the nucleus e) catalyze methylation of the DNA Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.5 Nucleus 39) These gene-containing structures consist of highly coiled and folded DNA along protein molecules. There are 46 of these structures in most cells in the human body. a) histones b) chromatids c) chromosomes d) centromeres e) centrosomes Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.5 Nucleus 40) This is the set of rules that relates the base triplet sequence of DNA to the corresponding codons of RNA and the amino acids that they specify. a) proteomics b) genomics c) alternative splicing d) genetic code e) metabolomics Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Question type: Essay 41) Briefly explain the difference between transcription and translation. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Solution: Transcription is making mRNA from DNA and it occurs in the nucleus, while translation is making a protein from the information in mRNA and happens in the cytosol of the cell. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Question type: Multiple Choice 42) This structure binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a polypeptide chain during translation. a) mRNA b) rRNA c) tRNA d) DNA e) cDNA Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis 43) This portion of a DNA segment does not code for a protein. a) RNA b) introns c) exons d) polyribosome e) ribosome Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Question type: Essay 44) Briefly describe alternative splicing. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Solution: Alternative splicing of mRNA is a process in which the pre-mRNA transcribed from a gene is spliced in different ways to produce several different mRNAs. The different mRNAs are used to make different proteins. Question type: Multiple Choice 45) This process is division of the cytoplasm. a) mitosis b) meiosis c) cytokinesis d) cytosol e) centrioles Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division Question type: Essay 46) Define homologous chromosomes. Answer: Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division Solution: Homologous chromosomes contain similar genes arranged in the same (or almost the same) order. Question type: Multiple Choice 47) During this phase of cell division, organelles duplicate and centrosome replication begins. a) interphase b) prophase c) metaphase d) anaphase e) telophase Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 48) How long does the G2 phase normally last? a) 8 to 10 hours b) 4 to 6 hours c) 2 to 4 hours d) 24 hours e) 1 to 2 days Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 49) During this phase of cell division, the chromatin fibers condense and shorten into chromosomes that are visible under the microscope. a) interphase b) prophase c) metaphase d) anaphase e) telophase Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 50) The overall function of mitosis is a) production of gametes. b) creation of more cilia. c) formation of new flagella. d) production of proteins. e) production of new cells. Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 51) During this phase of cell division, the centromeres split leading to separation and subsequent migration of the two members of a chromatid pair to opposite poles of the cells. The cleavage furrow also begins to develop during this phase. a) interphase b) prophase c) metaphase d) anaphase e) telophase Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 52) In the diagram, which organelle is responsible for autophagy and autolysis? a) C b) B c) F d) J e) D Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 53) In the diagram, which organelle is used to modify, sort and transport proteins? a) D b) I c) A d) J e) G Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 54) In the diagram, which organelle aids movement of the cell? a) A b) G c) H d) D e) I Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 55) In the diagram, this structure directs cellular activities. a) D b) F c) G d) A e) H Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.5 Nucleus 56) Which of the following represents a carrier protein? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) Both A and B. Answer: b Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 57) Which of the following represents a receptor? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.1 Distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 58) Which of the following represents a linker? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Answer: e Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.1 Distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 59) In the diagram, which one represents carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion? a) A b) B c) C d) Both A and C e) Both B and C Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 60) In the diagram, which one represents a hypertonic solution a) A b) B c) C d) Both B and C e) All of these choices are correct. Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 61) What does this figure represent? a) fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane b) cytokinesis c) mitosis d) gene expression e) organelle digestion Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis 62) Where would this process occur? a) nucleus b) cytoplasm c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum d) All of these choices are correct. e) None of these choices are correct. Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Question type: Essay 63) Describe briefly what is occurring at each step in the figure. Answer: Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Solution: This figure represents protein synthesis. Step one, the initiator tRNA attaches to a start codon. In step two, the large and small ribosomal subunits join to form a functional ribosome and initiator tRNA fits into P site. In step three, the anticodon of an incoming tRNA pairs with the next mRNA codon at A site. Step four, the amino acid on the tRNA at P site forms a peptide bond with the amino acid at A site. Step five, the tRNA at the P site leaves the ribosome and the ribosome shifts down by one codon. The tRNA previously at the A site is now at the P site. Step six is when protein synthesis stops when the ribosome reaches one of three potential stop codons on the mRNA strand. Question type: Multiple Choice 64) In the diagram, which panel shows events occurring during anaphase? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 65) In the diagram, which panel shows the kinetochore of the centromeres aligning along the center of the mitotic spindle of the cell? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 66) In the diagram, which panel shows cells that are in interphase? 1A 2C 3F a) 1 only b) 2 only c) 3 only d) 1 and 3 e) 1, 2, and 3 Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division Question type: Essay 67) Compare and contrast primary and secondary active transport. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane Solution: Both are energy requiring transport processes that are capable of moving substances against their concentration gradients. Energy obtained from hydrolysis of ATP drives primary active transport, while energy stored in an ionic concentration gradient drives secondary active transport. 68) Compare mitosis to meiosis. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.1 Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division Solution: Mitosis is somatic cell division that produces two identical cells with the same number (diploid) and kinds of chromosomes as the original cell. Meiosis is reproductive cell division that produces cells in which the number of chromosomes in the nucleus is reduced in half (haploid) Question type: Multiple Choice 69) What structural component of the membrane is labeled (A) in the diagram? a) glycoprotein b) integral protein c) cytosol d) glycolipid e) phospholipids Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 70) What structural component of the membrane is labeled (D) in the diagram? a) glycoprotein b) integral protein c) channel protein d) glycolipid e) peripheral protein Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 71) What structural component of the membrane is labeled (E) in the diagram? a) glycoprotein b) cholesterol c) channel protein d) glycolipid e) phospholipid Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 72) What structural components of the membrane are labeled (C) in the diagram? a) peripheral proteins b) cholesterol molecules c) pores d) integral proteins e) phospholipids Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 73) What structural component of the membrane is labeled (B) in the diagram? a) glycoprotein b) cholesterol c) glycolipid d) channel protein e) phospholipid Answer: a Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 74) Which of the following represents an ion channel? a) F b) C c) D d) A e) E Answer: d Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.2 Explain the concept of selective permeability. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 75) Which of the following represents an enzyme? a) F b) C c) D d) A e) E Answer: c Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.1 Distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 76) Which of the following shows catalysis of a reaction outside a cell at its surface? a) B b) C c) D d) A e) E Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.1 Distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 77) Which of the following shows ligand binding at the cell surface? a) B b) C c) D d) A e) E Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.1 Distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 78) Most intravenous solutions are with respect to blood cells? a) tonicity b) isotonic c) hypertonic d) osmotic e) hypotonic Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 79) Most sports drinks that help rehydrate the body are relative to your body’s cells? a) tonicity b) isotonic c) hypertonic d) hemolytic e) hypotonic Answer: e Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 80) A patient would be infused with a interstitial fluid in the brain. a) tonicity b) isotonic c) hypertonic d) hemolytic e) hypotonic Answer: c solution in order to ultimately relieve excess Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 81) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in receptor-mediated endocytosis shown in the figure? a) binding > degradation in lysosomes > vesicle formation > uncoating > recycling of receptors to plasma membrane > fusion with endosome b) degradation in lysosomes > fusion with endosome > recycling of receptors to plasma membrane > uncoating > vesicle formation > binding c) degradation in lysosomes > recycling of receptors to plasma membrane > fusion with endosome > uncoating > vesicle formation > binding d) binding > vesicle formation > uncoating > fusion with endosome > recycling of receptors to plasma membrane > degradation in lysosomes e) binding > uncoating > vesicle formation > fusion with endosome > degradation in lysosomes > recycling of receptors to plasma membrane Answer: d Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 82) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis shown in the figure? a) pseudopods surround particle > phagosome formed > fusion of lysosome and phagosome > digestion by lysosomal enzymes > residual body formed b) phagosome formed > pseudopods surround particle > fusion of lysosome and phagosome > digestion by lysosomal enzymes > residual body formed c) phagosome formed > pseudopods surround particle > fusion of lysosome and phagosome > residual body formed > digestion by lysosomal enzymes d) residual body formed > phagosome formed > pseudopods surround particle > fusion of lysosome and phagosome > digestion by lysosomal enzymes e) fusion of lysosome and phagosome > residual body formed > phagosome formed > pseudopods surround particle > digestion by lysosomal enzymes Answer: a Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 83) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in bulk-phase endocytosis shown in the figure? a) plasma membrane forms vesicle around extracellular droplets > fusion of lysosome and vesicle > vesicle formed pinches off into cytosol > digestion by enzymes > solutes released b) solutes released > plasma membrane forms vesicle around extracellular droplets > fusion of lysosome and vesicle > vesicle formed pinches off into cytosol > digestion by enzymes c) vesicle formed pinches off into cytosol > solutes released > plasma membrane forms vesicle around extracellular droplets > fusion of lysosome and vesicle > digestion by enzymes d) vesicle formed pinches off into cytosol > plasma membrane forms vesicle around extracellular droplets > fusion of lysosome and vesicle > digestion by enzymes > solutes released e) plasma membrane forms vesicle around extracellular droplets > vesicle formed pinches off into cytosol > fusion of lysosome and vesicle > digestion by enzymes > solutes released Answer: e Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 84) Which of the following substances is normally transported across membranes via facilitated diffusion? a) carbon dioxide gas b) fructose c) bacteria d) fat-soluble vitamins e) transferrin Answer: b Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane. Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 85) Which of the following substances is normally transported across the plasma membrane by exocytosis? a) carbon dioxide gas b) bacteria c) ions d) fat-soluble vitamins e) neurotransmitters Answer: e Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 86) Which of the following transport processes moves substances through cells using endocytosis on one side of a cell and exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell? a) phagocytosis b) secondary active transport c) transcytosis d) osmosis e) simple diffusion Answer: c Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.3 Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane Section Reference 1: 3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 87) A patient in their twenties having the inherited disease presents the following symptoms: rapid acceleration of aging evidenced by wrinkling of skin, muscular atrophy and baldness. a) Tay-Sachs disease b) leukemia c) progeria d) lymphoma e) Werner syndrome Answer: e Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape and describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.8.2 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells 88) A patient with normal development in their 1st year, followed by rapid aging evidenced by dry and wrinkled skin, total baldness, and birdlike facial features likely has which disease? a) Tay-Sachs disease b) leukemia c) progeria d) lymphoma e) Werner syndrome Answer: c Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape and describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.8.2 Describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells 89) Which disease below is an inherited condition characterized by the absence of a single lysosomal enzyme called Hex A? a) Tay-Sachs disease b) leukemia c) progeria d) lymphoma e) Werner syndrome Answer: a Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 90) A wart is an example of which type of neoplasm? a) progeria b) benign tumor c) malignant tumor d) sarcoma e) melanoma Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells (Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that affect cells) 91) Which of the following cancers arises from muscle or connective tissues? a) leukemia b) lymphoma c) wart d) sarcoma e) melanoma Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells (Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that affect cells) 92) A(n) is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. a) mutation b) tumor c) sarcoma d) oncogene e) angiogenesis Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells (Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that affect cells) 93) malignancies. is the loss of tissue differentiation and function that is characteristic of most a) Hyperplasia b) Hypertrophy c) Atrophy d) Dysplasia e) Anaplasia Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells (Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that affect cells) 94) a) Hyperplasia is the transformation of one type of cell into another. b) Metaplasia c) Atrophy d) Dysplasia e) Hypertrophy Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Aging and Cells (Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that affect cells) 95) is an increase in the size of cells without cell division. a) Hyperplasia b) Metaplasia c) Atrophy d) Dysplasia e) Hypertrophy Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.9 Describe the disorders that affect cells. Section Reference 1: 3.9 Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances that Affect Cells 96) This organelle is responsible for synthesis of steroids, phospholipids and functions as a reservoir for Ca2+? a) mitochondrion b) secretory vesicle c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum d) rough endoplasmic reticulum e) lysosome Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 97) What other organelle besides the nucleus contain DNA? a) Golgi complex b) lysosome c) ribosomes d) mitochondrion e) centrosome Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 98) This is the site of synthesis of rRNA and assembly of rRNA and proteins into ribosomal subunits. a) nucleus b) nucleolus c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum d) rough endoplasmic reticulum e) Golgi complex Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.5 Nucleus 99) A cell lacking ribosomes will be unable to make the following compounds a) lipids b) nucleotides c) proteins d) carbohydrates e) phospholipids Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.5 Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm 100) A gene for a certain protein contains 300 nucleotides. How many amino acids will ultimately make up the protein molecule? a) 900 b) 1200 c) 300 d) 100 e) Not enough information given. Answer: d Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis 101) The following is a particular sequence of base triplet on a DNA molecule: ATG. What is the corresponding codon for the mRNA? a) TAC b) GUA c) GTA d) CTA e) UAC Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis 102) The following is a particular sequence of codon on mRNA: ACU. What is the corresponding anti-codon for the tRNA? a) UGA b) UCA c) TGA d) TCA e) AUC Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.6 Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Section Reference 1: 3.6 Protein Synthesis Question type: Essay 103) Describe the difference between the cytoplasm and the cytosol. Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.4 Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles Section Reference 1: 3.4 Cytoplasm Solution: The cytoplasm is all the cellular material (organelles and fluid) between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, while the cytosol is only the fluid portion of the cytoplasm. Question type: Multiple Choice 104) The difference in concentration of a specific chemical, like Na+, on the inside and outside of a plasma is referred as a(n) a) electrochemical potential. b) membrane potential. c) electrical gradient. d) concentration gradient. e) biological capacitance. Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.2 Describe the plasma membrane structural and functional properties. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.2.3 Define the electrochemical gradient and describe its components. Section Reference 1: 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 105) This group of proteins is used to switch on and off the kinases that control the progression of somatic cell division from one stage of the cell cycle to the next. a) tetrads. b) kinetochores. c) telomeres. d) histones. e) cyclins. Answer: e Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.2 Describe the signals that induce somatic cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 106) An orderly, genetically programmed cell death is referred to as pathological cell death is referred to as . , while disorganized a) apoptosis; synapsis b) apoptosis; necrosis c) necrosis; apoptosis d) synapsis; necrosis e) necrosis; synapsis Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.7 Understand the events and processes involved in cell division. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.7.2 Describe the signals that induce somatic cell division. Section Reference 1: 3.7 Cell Division 107) The human body contains approximately different cell types. cells, which can be classified into about a) 1 billion; 200 b) 1 trillion; 200 c) 100 trillion; 200 d) 1 trillion; 4 e) 100 trillion; 4 Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape and describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.8.1 Describe how cells differ in size and shape. Section Reference 1: 3.8 Cellular Diversity 108) Which of the cells in the diagram contains structural adaptations that increase surface area for absorption? 1B 2C 3D 4E a) 3 and 4 b) 1 only c) 2 only d) 3 only e) 4 only Answer: a Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape and describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.8.1 Describe how cells differ in size and shape. Section Reference 1: 3.8 Cellular Diversity 109) Which of the cells in the diagram are found in the walls of blood vessels where they function to narrow or widen the path for blood flow through that vessel? a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Answer: b Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: LO 3.8 Describe how cells differ in size and shape and describe the cellular changes that occur with aging. Learning Objective 2: LO 3.8.1 Describe how cells differ in size and shape. Section Reference 1: 3.8 Cellular Diversity

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